|Debian major version||codename||Release date|
# Sid - The unstable distribution
The code name for Debian's development distribution is sid, aliased to unstable. Most of the development work that is done in Debian, is uploaded to this distribution. This distribution will never get released; instead, packages from it will propagate into testing and then into a real release.
Please note that security updates for unstable distribution are not managed by the security team. Hence, unstable does not get security updates in a timely manner. For more information please see the Security Team's FAQ.
sid is subject to massive changes and in-place library updates. This can result in a very unstable system which contains packages that cannot be installed due to missing libraries, dependencies that cannot be fulfilled etc. Use it at your own risk! sourceopen in new window
# Available package(s)
apt update apt-cache search sendmail apt-cache search --names-only 'icedtea?'
# Installed package version
apt show gitlab-ee | grep -i version
# Available versions
Show availables versions for a given package.
apt-cache madison curl apt-cache madison gitlab-ee | grep 13.3.5-ee.0 gitlab-ee | 13.3.5-ee.0 | https://packages.gitlab.com/gitlab/gitlab-ee/debian buster/main amd64 Packages
Show dependencies for a given package
apt depends sendmail
# Clean cache
Clean cache space in /var/cache/apt/archives/
# Pin version
Explanation: Prefer GitLab provided packages over the Debian native ones Package: gitlab-ee Pin: version 13.3.5-ee.0 Pin-Priority: 1001
Packages vendors provide some https endpoints to get package content. The ones acquired by
apt install gitlab-ee.
gitlab-ee the given official URL by gitlab is
That's what we see in the
apt source list config
cat /etc/apt/sources.list.d/gitlab_gitlab-ee.list # this file was generated by packages.gitlab.com for # the repository at https://packages.gitlab.com/gitlab/gitlab-ee deb https://packages.gitlab.com/gitlab/gitlab-ee/debian/ jessie main deb-src https://packages.gitlab.com/gitlab/gitlab-ee/debian/ jessie main
But, to prove the ownership of their package, vendors sign them with
gitlab enterprise edition GPG public key can be acquired here :
That's why before beeing able to install them, you have to add vendor key into
apt key store.
Example : Add gitlab-ee to
apt key store
curl -L https://packages.gitlab.com/gitlab/gitlab-ee/gpgkey | sudo apt-key add -
Example : Add yarn to
apt key store
curl -sS https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
The vendor GPG public key is always easy to find on the vendor website under
gpg section 😃
Default system software (Debian)
update-alternatives - maintain symbolic links determining default commands
List existing selections and list the one you wanna see
update-alternatives --get-selections update-alternatives --list x-www-browser
Modify existing selection interactively
sudo update-alternatives --config x-terminal-emulator
Create a new selection
update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/x-window-manager x-window-manager /usr/bin/i3 20
Change default terminal or browser will prompt you an interactive console to chose among recognized software
sudo update-alternatives --config x-terminal-emulator sudo update-alternatives --config x-www-browser